Changes in the comparative advantage of Polish dairy products

Bórawski P., Bełdycka-Bórawska A., Parzonko A., Rokicki T., Holden L. (2022): Changes in the comparative advantage of Polish dairy products. Agric. Econ. – Czech., 68: 464–475.

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Competitiveness is one of the key concepts in economic sciences, andit is defined as the ability of businesses to compete in the market. The aim of this study was to assess the competitiveness of dairy products in Poland. The competitiveness was evaluated in a macroeconomic approach by analysing the exports, imports, and the trade balance. The results were processed and presented with the use of tabular, graphic, and descriptive methods. After Poland joined the European Union (EU) in 2004, one of the key goals was to improve the quality, storage, and applicability of dairy products, and to promote trade in milk and dairy products. The Polish dairy industry reported a positive balance in the foreign trade of milk and dairy products, which contributed to positive values in the competitiveness indicators of dairy products. The values of the export specialisation index (SI), export revealed comparative advantage (XRCA), relative import penetration index (MRCA), foreign trade coverage ratio (CRK), and the Grubel-Lloyd intra-industry trade index (IITk) were positive, which attests to the competitiveness of Polish dairy products. We proved that the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the competitiveness of dairy enterprises in Poland.

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